The Old Man (or Woman) and the App: Crossing the digital divide and bringing an adherence app to elderly patients who have no prior experience with tablets or smartphones. Frontiers. 

This study shows whether the older population uses digital health, whether this is the best way for the older population if they have no experience with smartphones or tablets would benefit, and if using a more traditional is preferred by the older population for adherence intervention.

Thakkar J, Kurup R, Laba T, et al. Mobile Telephone Text Messaging for Medication Adherence in Chronic Disease: A Meta-analysis. writing an essay guidelines dissertation writing literature review coming of age in mississippi essay go to site get viagra at a discount enter site format for research report essay scholarships middle school students get link probleme de coeur et viagra difference between main idea and thesis cheapest site to buy propecia forum enter tips for writing essay in english research paper recommendation thesis sample cialis online canada belonging related texts essay see url social case study report assessment ladies viagra tablets name in india follow link nolvadex d uke prezervativul viagra pret education for all essay go JAMA Intern Med. 2016;176(3):340-349. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.7667.

Mobile phone text messaging approximately doubles the odds of medication adherence. This increase translates into adherence rates improving from 50% (assuming this baseline rate in patients with chronic disease) to 67.8%, or an absolute increase of 17.8%. While promising, these results should be interpreted with caution given the short duration of trials and reliance on self-reported medication adherence measures. Future studies need to determine the features of text message interventions that improve success, as well as appropriate patient populations, sustained effects, and influences on clinical outcomes.


Vrijens B, De Geest S, Hughes D, Przemyslaw K, Demonceau J, Ruppar T, Dobbels F, Fargher E, Morrison V, Lewek P, Matyjaszczyk M, Mshelia C, Clyne W, Aronson J, Urquhart J. A New Taxonomy for Describing and Defining Adherence to Medications. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 2012, 73(s5); 691-705.

This paper proposes a new taxonomy, in which adherence to medications is conceptualized, based on behavioral and pharmacological science, and will support quantifiable parameters. A systematic literature review was performed to identify the different conceptual approaches to adherence research. As a result, authors of this paper have proposed a new taxonomy for medication taking behavior that will support relevant measures.


Zhang NJ, Terry A, McHorney CA. Impact of health literacy on medication adherence: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 2014, 48(6): 741-751.

This article reviews and synthesizes published literature to determine the association between health literacy, the degree to which an individual has the capacity to understand health information, and medication adherence. The authors concluded that there is an association, but further research is needed to explore these associations.


Costa E, Giardini A, Savin M, Menditto E, Lehane EA, Laosa O, Pecorelli S, Monaco A, Marengoni A. Interventional Tools to Improve Medication Adherence: A Review of Literature. Patient Preference and Adherence 2015, 9: 1303-1314.

This paper reviews the importance of the role of medication adherence in the management of chronic diseases; particularly in the aging population. The majority of studies are focused on short-term adherence, and no consistent results were presented for long-term evidence; suggesting that future research should focus on new, innovative strategies to improve adherence for long term.


DeKoekkoek T., Given B, Given CW, Ridenour K, Schueller M, Spolestra SL. mHealth SMS Text Messaging Interventions and to Promote Medication Adherence: An Integrative Review. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 2015, 24: 19-20.

This review provides clinicians with the state of the science with regard to text messaging interventions that promote medication adherence. A description of intervention components are provided to aid nurses in development of text messages and in translating evidence into practice.